ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF AUTOCLAVED CASTOR BRAN TO FEED FATTENING PIGS
LUDKE , J. V¹; COLDEBELLA, A.¹, SILVA, J.C.N.S. ² LUDKE, M.C.M.M³; PEREIRO, P.S4; SILVA, A.S.5
¹ Researchers for Embrapa Swine and Poultry, BR 153, Km 110, PO Box 321, Concordia, SC – Brazil, CEP 89715-899, [email protected]; ² DSc., Zootec, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco – Recife, PE.; ³ DSc., Zootec, Associated Professor at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco – Recife-PE; 4’ Student in Zootechnics, PUBUC, UFRPE – Recife, PE; 5’ MSc. Agr. COPERATA
KEY-WORDS: Alternative feeding; risk analysis; PERT distribution; simulation Monte Carlo; castrated male pigs.
The assessment of the potential use of alternative feeding on the monogastric animals’ diet is supplemented with the bio-economical assessment, as the feasibility of animal production depends on feeding costs. The purpose of this research was to apply the economical feasibility assessment to the use of autoclaved castor oil meal (FMA) in feeding fattening pigs from 28 to 70 kg, which is a stage of high growth rates.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
To take the castor meal suitable for pig consumption, a processing sequence was adopted (2): the castor seeds were conditioned in water vapor (110 ºC for six minutes), subjected to oil extraction by mechanical press and complementarily an ethanol bath in counter current at 80º C. After the bran was mixed with 6% of calcium oxide, the mixture was uniformly hydrated (1: 1 by weight), autoclaved (1.23 Kgf / cm² at 104º C during 90 minutes), sun-dried and ground.
Experimental Outline: In the performance experiment, 25 male castrated pigs were used to evaluate five levels (0,5,10,15) of FMA during 35 days. The experimental design was a randomized block with five treatments and five repetitions per treatment. Three nutritional phases lasting 7, 14 and 14 days were used. In each phase, isonutritional diets were used. Analysis of variance for performance was performed using SAS.
Economic Assessment: For this analysis, all data on weight gain and feed consumption were used, considering the normal distribution observed in the experiment, and data on the prices of ingredients included in the formulation of experimental diets were also used. The ingredient price database, from the Rural Economy sector of Embrapa Swine and Poultry, contained information on quarterly averages for a period of 10 years (from July 2005 to July 20155), for three specific location groups ( Group 1: average values for Ceará, Pernambuco and Minas Gerais, Group 2: Goiás and Group 3: Paraná). A Monte Carlo simulation was used, through the @RISK program, to develop the probabilistic analysis of the equilibrium value for the FMA price in the different scenarios, also presenting the limit values for the prices that the FMA can vary (1), the PERT distribution was adopted to estimate the values (minimum, maximum and expected) of ingredient prices (Figure 1).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A linear effect was observed for consumption (g): (Y = -14.7X + 2566 where X = level of FM inclusion in%. P <0.0114, R² = 0.8126), weight gain (mean = 1.150 kg / day) and feed conversion (mean = 2.10 kg / kg) were not affected (p> 0.05).
The distribution of estimated FMA prices considering the same feed cost to produce one kg and body weight for growing pigs (Figure 1) indicates a difference between group 1 when compared with groups 2 and 3. The probabilistic estimate of the average value is of R $ 0.46, R $ 0.24 and R $ 0.21, respectively for groups 1.2 and 3. The price structure of the ingredients evaluated in a decade indicates that in group 1 the FMA may have greater value of market.
The price structure of the ingredients in the three evaluated groups indicated that autoclaved castor bran can potentially acquire a higher value of landmarks in the states of Ceará, Pernambuco and Minas Gerais.
PALISADE CORPORATION. @Risk advanced risk analysis for spreadsheets. Newfield, NY Palisade Corporation,2004. Guide to use @Risk, version 4.5,2 SANTANA, J.C.N Autoclaved castor bran for pig and broiler feed. 2014.10DI Thesis (Doctorate in Zootechnic) – Federal Rural university of Pernambuco, Recife.
Figure 1: Graphical distribution of the estimated prices of Autoclaved Castor Bran considering the same feed cost to produce a kg of body weight and the respective tables for the minimum (Min.), Maximum (Max) and waiting (Esp.) Prices adopted in the Monte simulation Carlo.